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Ravi Kiran
I help ambitious businesses in Middle India scale. Rapidly and properly.

Why be an Entrepreneur in the first place?

We live in times that celebrate entrepreneurship. Faced with a slowdown, underemployment and the need to create more jobs, entrepreneurship is seen as a saviour for our society and economy. We laud entrepreneurial communities and make heroes out of serial entrepreneurs. Even Governments try to get some glory by trying to be entrepreneur and small business friendly. Anyone who starts or runs a business is referred to as an entrepreneur and entrepreneurs are generally assumed to be risk friendly, ambitious, innovative and job creators. All good really. In general.

The ground reality is a bit different, though, at least in Middle India.

That reality hit us, when, about a year ago, during a visit we made to Guwahati in Assam, a local entrepreneur urged us to change the name of our company. The word ‘ambition’ in Friends of Ambition, he said, communicates ‘greed’, and greed is never a good thing, whether in life or in business. Less than logical or serious as this may sound to some of us, there was nothing frivolous or illogical in the voice of that entrepreneur, when he made that particular recommendation.  As we travelled, we would at times hear this argument as we as sometimes the opposite. Some entrepreneurs would talk of ambition as a social responsibility.

Are all entrepreneurs similar? Do all create value? Are all risk friendly? Do all entrepreneurs need to be supported with social and economic resources? Is it correct to assume that all entrepreneurs are ambitious? Or innovative?

We started looking for existing studies on the nature of entrepreneurship. Guess what we found? Nothing. Nothing deep anyway.

We found powerful reference books such as the Oxford History of Indian Business and many related books by Professor Dwijendra Tripathi, Dr Gita Piramal’s Business Maharajas and Business Legends, many on ‘how to turn entrepreneur’ or ‘what entrepreneurial mistakes to avoid’ and many anecdotal stories of famous entrepreneurial persons, but nothing that helped us understand different types of entrepreneurship and different entrepreneurial behaviours.

After dozens of trips to Middle India, hundreds of conversations with different types of entrepreneurs, I believe a few specific thinking frameworks are emerging to classify entrepreneurial behaviour. It’s a fascinating study and it’s still continuing.

So why does ambition in business vary from one entrepreneur to another? Why do some people want to change the world, while some are quite content to just fend for themselves? Why are some entrepreneurs in a hurry while others seem to have great patience? Why does the risk profile of entrepreneurs vary? Has it something to do with geography? Or ethnicity? Or education? Or is it, as some say, in the genes?

One framework, perhaps the simplest of the three, that seems to explain a good part [may not be all] of entrepreneurial behaviour is based on why people start their own enterprise. This starting context can often explain their risk friendliness, ambition levels, orientation, value system, people approach and many other traits. Naturally, since behaviour and approach of the entrepreneur defines the way a business would be built, the slope of the business’ growth curve, its people and social orientation, its focus on productivity and many other dimensions of the enterprise could perhaps be explained, if we understand entrepreneurial behaviour well.

Let’s call this framework the Compulsion-Volition-Presumption, or CVP framework.

Entrepreneurship by Compulsion: I meet many entrepreneurs who say, quite matter-of-factly, that they started a business, because they had no other choice.

This is quite interesting. It may mean someone finished formal education, got a degree, but could not find suitable employment, despite having the aptitude to learn and pick up skills. At other times, not very uncommon for some sections of our society, an individual was faced with so much adversity thrust on him at an early age, that he could not complete formal education and had to start something on his own to support his family.  Some other people, even after getting their formal degree, are just not employable. Even others start a business, often quite late in life, to supplement their family income.

You can see some dominant behavioural threads in people who are thus compelled to turn entrepreneur. They usually have a lot of patience, are hardworking, believe in Destiny, and have a well-developed value system. Depending on the intensity of the adversity they had to face before turning entrepreneur, compulsion becomes their adopted decision making style.

This encourages many of them to develop a low risk-friendliness, in the fear of ‘losing everything’. They often can talk of the need for taking ‘calculated risk’ and ‘considered decision’ in business. Many become dependent on others – family, friends, employees – in taking even simple decisions; it’s their way of mitigating the impact of the risk of taking any decision at all.

Many such entrepreneurs are against adopting unethical means to grow their business, it’s ‘against their principles’. Even those who have adjusted that principle slightly, claim ‘I had to pay someone for a favour as a last resort’ and often atone for their ‘sin’ by turning very religious, and doing ‘business related pujas and havan’s regularly.

To many of their peers, entrepreneurs by compulsion often appear ‘not pragmatic’. If they do not ‘feel’ successful by the time their children enter the teenage years, they would want their children to attempt something else, including taking up employment, joining the bureaucracy or even becoming a qualified professional such as physician or an architect. In essence, they do not want their children to be ‘compelled’ to do anything.

Entrepreneurship by Volition: Some people turn entrepreneur despite having all the right educational qualifications and employment prospects. Some even leave perfectly secure jobs to start something of their own. These are people who choose to become an entrepreneur. We read about such people all the time –someone returns from overseas, or from a big city to his home town in Middle India, some leave a corporate job with a big title to start afresh, someone quits school or college and gets parents to agree to her adventure, some others do it despite parental resistance… the list goes on.

Ironically, when you talk to these people, the real die hard amongst them think and talk differently and actually claim that they had no choice but to hit the road on their own. You hear things such as: “My idea was so good that I didn’t want to waste another moment in school” or “I felt if I were to go to my paid job for too much longer, I would go crazy and die with my idea still inside me” or even “I just wanted to be my own boss. There’s so much I can do without the corporate politics!’

These are the people who talk endlessly about how the world must be ‘different’ or how ‘there is so much to be done’. Many of them talk of the ‘the fire within’. To an observer, they may appear to have made a choice, but to themselves, they really didn’t have one. They were consumed by something- an idea, a possibility, an opportunity. Most heroic adventures of entrepreneurship are written about people like these.

So do all entrepreneurs by volition turn out to be ruthless, maverick, hard driving, task oriented maniacs? Not really. I am sure there are shades of personalities amongst these. But in general, they happen to be highly inspirational and hard working to the point of breaking down, have very little patience for such ‘fancy notions’ as work-life balance, particularly in the early stages of the business. They often believe in God, but thank Him rather than ask something from Him. They are suspicious of many and trusting of a few. Most thrive on risk and are often described by peers as ‘punters’. They are frequently looking for ‘short-cuts’ and favour people who are ‘chalaak’. ‘Jugaad’ is something they cherish and accept as ‘the way to do business’. Their approach to expedience is no different and they would not mind greasing palms to get things done, because ‘who has the patience to get things done the right way?’

Interestingly, many of this type of entrepreneurs are not very people oriented and often turn out to be poor business managers. Their children learn the ‘tips and tricks’ quite early and may end up accepting business as their natural profession, particularly if the parent feels successful.

Entrepreneurship by Presumption: The third type belongs to what many us refer as FOB – Family Owned Business or FMB – Family Managed Business.

The Entrepreneur by Presumption is all around us, and perhaps constitutes the single largest group of successful business people. Family Managed Businesses are often built as going concerns to be handed over to the children, who would then grow it to a higher level. The child is expected to enter the business someday, when he is ready. Often, the child is prepared for that ‘someday’ by being encouraged to attend work whenever he has time.

The risk friendliness of this kind of entrepreneur is more complex to understand, as is the value system. Some tow the family line and do what has always been assumed to be right. Some others establish their own views and approaches and create very different businesses. As can be expected, the family works as a strong support system and that allows the entrepreneur to take larger risks. But there are also cases, where the individual becomes a rather reluctant entrepreneur and can destroy the value of the family business rather than build it further. Often the Entrepreneur by Presumption faces a strong family prejudice against any new adventure, particularly if the family business is small in size.

Naturally, while these three groups appear quite distinct, they may not be black and white typification of entrepreneurs and how their ambition is shaped. I am sure there are many grey areas and also there may be many sub types within each entrepreneurial type. Any society needs all three types and one is perhaps not superior to any other. There may be breakout and atypical behaviours within each group.

I am still meeting people, digging into their psyche, and learning.

What is your experience? Tell me about it.

P.S. Apologies in advance for using the masculine gender in general to refer to the entrepreneur.

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really a good article to read and more than that i like the comments and views. People have one more motto behind having their own start up to make themselves rich. they think if they spend same amount of time and dedication, which they are spending with their company, they would be some where. secondly i have seen people start believing in having their own is incidentally, they get inspired by some one all of a sudden. I do the have the same motto and my recommendation is: believe in your self or having a strong huger/appetatite, doesnt mean to jump all of a sudden....Be a good planner to rsolve this mystery..and this can be done only when you work for some else intially....
Hello sir, I am happy to see the article, which encouraged me. I am currently in my final year of mechanical engineering. I wish to pursue higher studies after my bachelor degree. I want to be an entrepreneur ( not sure about the field, though) in India. Will a doctorate or fellowship degree help me out to learn the nuances of my field or an M.S or M.B.A is sufficient? Also, which country is preferable, India or the USA? Thanks for the time taken Regards
I am an entrepreneur myself. My simple reason to turn towards entrepreneurship was that I felt happy being one, innovating, solving problems on ground. sir I am 2nd year MBA student and loved ur case study. Considering the present scenario of the great slowdown in the market and number of opportunities for freshers being hired up and the level of quality education being imparted to present day engineers in our country, entrepreneurship seems to be a silver lining. I always wanted to be an entrepreneur.
Hey Ravi,
I loved your study. I am an entrepreneur myself. My simple reason to turn towards entrepreneurship was that I felt happy being one, innovating, solving problems on ground. The more profound reason which led to explore dimensions available for starting up was massive chinese presence in almost all sectors of business. Take for instance the lights we use on the biggest Indian festival, diwali; chinese lights !
I was only a student in class 7, when I had made up my mind that I will do my bit to support my country. I started with engineering services, moved to manufacturing and designing. Today, we work on cutting edge technologies such as Mechatronics, AI, Machine learning, Robotics, Industrial Automation, Complete HT and LT electrical equipment manufacturing and services. Will shortly diversify to power and civil equipment manufacturing as well.
Lets do for our country, rather than just keep sitting on our thoughts. Entrepreneurship is a basic necessity for India. How otherwise do we plan to keep up in the race !!
Kushagra Oberoi
Sir, I am a 3rd yr Mechanical engineering student and loved your case study. Considering the present scenario of the great slowdown in the market and number of opportunities for freshers being hired up and the level of quality education being imparted to present day engineers in our country, entrepreneurship seems to be a silver lining. I always wanted to be an entrepreneur. My father owned C&F of plastic products. We were the main distributors in the southern India market.The sudden death of my father due to lung cancer made us wind up that business since my elder brother was not interested in it and i was in my tender age. Whereas i always wanted to take up that business and help my father. I have this feeling of starting and taking up the business line but my mother is frightened with my way of thing and taking risks since we have lost most of our saving in the medication of my father and my College. But i know i'll be an entrepreneur one day. Your article has been an inspiration to me and i thank you for it .
There is a lot of substance to what this article has to offer. I have seen my colleagues turning in to entrepreneurs after they had spend considerable time working for companies. Since, I have been a curious observer myself of business and people alike, this 1-09-90 trait is a carry forward of typical organisation, where 90% of employees are tuned towards making a stable career, non risk takers, this percolates in to the culture of an organisation which is less on being aggressive, innovative and ambitious and is at high risk of falling flat
So, the HR theory to find a stable candidate (5 years in one company) for an organisation is good for the organisation or bad is something that needs to be understood. I guess, there has to a be a balance of stable and aggressive manpower (2 years in one company) to create an organisation culture with in employees as a risk taker and ambitious. Here, one has to dealing with over ambitious manpower, the performers.
The transformation, from being an employee to an employer, is not a cakewalk and people with excellent stability in corporate life are failures when it comes to business and managing their own companies.
On the other hand, I have seen many examples of people with not so stable corporate life, has been very successful when it came to managing their own business.
Sandip, conselling for young professionals is extremely important. In USA and India, I have seen that people who graduate from top universities have very low self confidence level. A person who has confidence in himself is independent person and very hard to manage. Therefore, the first thing, few (NOT ALL) companies do is to break his confidence. They have to make him shaky and afraid. Once he is trembling, he is controllable. He will be powerless and always in need for somebody to direct and command him. Now, he will be a good soldier. Now, you can put incapable person to manage the group people with extraordinarily intelligence.
The most beautiful models are the most insecure. The person with a Harvard degree is the most under confident. These are suggestions that though not quite wrong are illustrations of misplaced causality. The beauty is not what makes her insecure, nor the degree is as debilitating as it is often made out to be in the popular media. It is what lies underneath. Did the beautiful model struggle to any meaningful extent to become a model. Did the graduate have any other life experience to augment his degree? It is life experiences and the associated struggles that shape you up. If someone is too dependent on any asset that they have not earned then they might find those assets to be crippling and not view them as enablers (be it beauty, family money or a fancy degree). However, it is misleading to suggest that either a degree or a job can make a person shaky.
There is saying, " IF YOU DON'T PRIORITIZE YOURd LIFE, SOMEONE ELSE WILL". Either people will work for you or you will work for them. This is the choice you have to make. Many highly educated people have low self confidence and are very afraid of starting their own business. These people keep on working for the companies I mentioned before. Ironically, these are the people who have strongest safety net. They can find decent job anytime in their life.
But then it has nothing to do with a degree from a good university. Probably the guy never had the mettle for becoming an entrepreneur. You are right when you say that a good life may eventually become difficult to throw away and chase an entrepreneurial dream but a degree from a college is only part of what makes relinquishing so difficult...dearth of drive, desire to enjoy life with your family, not knowing how to deal with losses, lack of vitality, etc are all independent variables and have got nothing to do with his college degree. I believe, the degree is not to blame. Rather some or all the above, if present, in a person will make him a poor entrepreneur. Just like beauty by itself cannot make a model insecure, I am somewhat doubtful that education or a college degree can make someone a poor entrepreneur. At best, it is quite possible that a person having all or some of the above characteristics seeks refuge in a good education and then uses that as a shield/excuse just like he uses many other things as a shield/excuse in his life. Lets not blame a good degree or an education for what they are not.
I am trying to convince you about things. Firstly, aim high. All Harvard MBAs should try to create jobs instead of looking for jobs. If your aim is to get good job then you will never create your own business. Secondly, have vision. Many people are trapped into jobs because of their previous wrong decisions (karma). They are not comfortable in their jobs. For example: after getting decent job many Americans buy expensive car and big house on thirty year mortgage. These people accumulate so much debt that, these people cannot even think of starting their own business.
Wow, according to you people who graduate from top universities should struggle to find job. In USA, why do new members go through extreme embarrassment to join fraternity? One explanation is that the person who go through great deal of trouble or pain to attain something value it more highly than the person who attain the same thing with minimal effort. Few (not all) companies exploit this psychological trick.
sandip mahato
Dear Mr Kiran, You are absolutely correct about the scenario of educated unemployed youth,' someone finished formal education, got a degree, but could not find suitable employment, despite having the aptitude to learn and pick up skills.' It is because of the lack of proper counselling departments in schools and colleges. there will be great help and huge positive outcome can grow if counselling department grows for students and families too. I experienced it with my own life where I changed my profession to and fro, from a successful civil draftsman to event management, even become a call center agent of vodafone. Now whats next? I have several ideas and dreams to full-fill like making documentaries, business newspaper to publish, or professional writing and literature of bengali or else government agents, these all like minded work interests me but I know I am not able to full-fill all those dreams with full fledged in one life time.
Hello Sandip, there is a famous saying in entrepreneurship - ideas mean nothing, problems everything, especially those that are worth solving.
Kirandeep Atwal
If you have passion for writing then work for some good newspaper. If you start your own business then you work on a business, not in a business. Almost 90% of your time will be spent in networking, sales, HR and finance. The sucess of business depends very less on whether you are good writer or not
sandip mahato
Thank you Deep, I do work on it. And I want to draw your attention regarding: counselling department ( enforced to every nook and corner ) is a very urgent need for India because a good chunk of students could not decide what to do after their education. Here an entrepreneur can perform a big role I think! Cheers
Kirandeep Atwal
In USA, engineering graduate have lot of student loans. Therefore, these people have no other option other than to do job. In india engineers from good universities have almost no loan. Therefore, these people choose to do their own business rather than doing job. This has nothing to do with unemployment. Secondly, indian enterpenuer are not risk averse. They mitigate risk by testing their ideas as cheeply as possible.
Kirandeep, thanks for the comments. I like your perspective of the student education loan. The thing we have noticed in India recently is that ambitious people are willing to take the entrepreneurial plunge, even when they have loan to service, as long as they are confident. This is more true in big cities. On your other comment that 'Indian entrepreneurs are not risk averse', I feel the jury is till out as we question the classical broad definition of entrepreneurship as well as question the role of family in people turning entrepreneurs. Often, I am told, our families make us risk averse. Some times, the family is the safety next people use to experiment with entrepreneurship, although many people question that kind of 'half hearted' entrepreneurship.
Kirandeep Atwal
Dhiru bhai Ambani was not highly educated person. He created one of the bigget business empire. But, he sent both of his sons to business school. From this, we can conclude that he valued MBA degree very highly. This, same kind of theme runs in almost all business families. There are many reasons behind it. But, one of the reason is to create strong safety net. Even you fails in business, you will lead comfortable life by doing job. This makes next generation risk takers, not risk averse.
The categorization of entrepreneurs is quite impressive in CVP framework.But What category would you assign to the people from best technology schools in India , who have tried their wit in many start ups but could not succeed. In fact taking in to account the success rate for entrepreneurship is crucial.This may prove eyeopener for many who use there heart more than their top floor.Also discipline is most important in job/business.You cannot always say that craving for freedom is the only cause to enter in to a new business venture.
Hi Akash, thanks for reading the post and for your comment. I guess anyone who becomes an entrepreneur despite having other options, can be called an Entrepreneur by Volition. If I implied that 'craving for freedom is the only reason to be an entrepreneur', I am sorry. that was not my intention.
The CVP framework seems to cover a large category of entrepreneurs. But in recent times the next generation entrepreneur's of a FOB, tend towards gaining experience through jobs. They believe that by doing so they are acquiring practical experience. But to me unless you start doing your business you will not be learning anything. Also what about the aspiring normal working class people who are willing to try their luck in business. Do they also fall under the "V" category?
I want to be = Volition. Thanks Sabari.
Robin Mathew
Hi, I am an MBA graduate (fresher).I am placed at UAE Exchange, Mumbai for the job which i will have to get in by July.I am confused whether i should be taking the job which i am not interested and waste my time (actually working for others i feel its waste of time)or spent time for myself and workout the plans that are in my mind.From my teenage all i wanna be is the director of my life and work with all my heart for a better tomorrow and being a part for the journey of my developing economy to developed and self-sufficient economy.All that i hear around me is to work, prove yourself and then plan things ahead,i fear if i taste the honey of success in my career, i would be late and wont think about taking the risk in business. Should i go for the honey of career or the rigid road of business world which i would be happy to take? Should i work just to prove people around me that i can do something? What would your advice be to an young starving mind who wants to be an entrepreneur but with no accreditation of proven success stories?
My young friend Robin, there are some things in life others can't and shouldn't answer for you, and this is one of them. You seem to be unsure about the UAE Exchange job, and think it's a waste of time. Do everyone a favour, tell them that and don't join. Leaving a company within a couple of months of joining is worse than not joining. You seem to have a good risk appetite and that's a good beginning. Now think about why you want to an entrepreneur and take the plunge.
Sambhav Sharma
Very well framed. Fact is life is not mathematics. In life 2+2 can be 4 or 5 or anything. You understand this thing very well somewhere as is clear from your statement " I am sure there are shades of personalities amongst these. " Additionally, I feel there are a few that are hybrids of the three categories explained in this article. There are some that adapt to the Business requirements and adapt accordingly. Act like one type of entrepreneur in one situation and another type of entrepreneur in another situation. A lot depends on who your customer is.
Thanks Sambhav for your comments. I also believe that while a particular entrepreneur starts as one type, he may show characteristics of another based on context. Context is everything and this post tries to understand the starting context. I guess many things decide how the context changes for a given entrepreneur - family circumstances, regulations, pace of growth, nature of emerging competition etc.
Hi I'm a chemical engineer and MBA who worked for JUST one year in a MNC and quit to start my own business Why I realised THE ONE THING I LOVED MOST IN LIFE was FREEDOM Freedom - to get up when i want, sleep when i want, take a break when i want Not waiting for leave to be sanctioned inspite of slogging the most in the team AND I couldn't and wont be able to Handle Office Politics Apple Polishing Shrink Work The above three are must to succeed in Workpalce...No point in cribbing if yo can't manage them...shut up or get out...They are a must My friends tell me that they are frustated in jobs and wanna quit - I ask them "Why" If the reason is MONEY - i tell them bluntly that they are fools - There is more and SECURE money in Job rather than a business (Only 1% businessmean have made good money) .... it is not like our fathers times There is more Prestige, Social Acceptance in Job (Try getting a home loan or a wife of your choice..u'll understand) You start a Business ONLY if You value FREEDOM - First It can be any think Freedom of timings (like me) Freedom to do business like you think should be done and not the way the company u are working thinks Freedom to choose (pick or drop) client Freedom to start a new line of business Freedom from many other things BUT Money is not a reason Even today after 13 years many entrepruners (incl me) are no where in terms of social ladder or financial ladder compared to our colleagues in Job BUT we have Freedom - The reason i quit
Hi Ravi, CVP Framework can be definitely improved. As someone in the middle (volition), I disagree with the persona that has been painted out. As someone who meets this creed often, I can give you umpteen examples where such entrepreneurs are working hard to build ideas with genuine efforts. The 'jugaad' element is at best sectoral. You may want to consider that element in the framework. Thanks - Raj
Thanks Raj for your comments. So what is that you do not agree with?
Ram Sunder Singh
Revealing article to find the value and psyche of entrepreneur in Indian Context. As I understand that entrepreneur is who does enterprising activities making value tangible and intangible addition to organisation either accepting the responsibility under presumption category or entering the fraternity by compulsion or aspiration to utilize the artificial intelligence for churning our revenue. I strongly feel the application of Maslow's need hierarchy Theory in entrepreneur life to classify and placement at hierarchy of the need factor of entrepreneur. Value addition in business / corporate governance is awarded by way of recognition and enjoying the confidence of stake-holder wherein we must not forget that the society is the major stake-holder by being consumer/ worker, facilitator , investor. Entrepreneur may be belonging to any of the three category should assume responsibility of the stake-holder for SELF PROSPERITY and enjoying the eternal happiness of the real success. After successful mega issue of Reliance Industries in late 80's , I still remember one of the point of discussion with friend at tea time when one of my friend said - it is the charisma of Dhiru Bhai who always preserved as billionaire in the rational mind of mass. As a corollary to small level, we can see many small entrepreneur carry a lot of respect of the concerned people.

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Ravi Kiran
As a child, I used to wonder where mosquitoes in winter hide, why fish keep swimming, how birds learn to fly and other such 'un-natural' occurrences. After a career in marketing & communications for over 20 years, building and running businesses of excellent size and in many a geography, hiring and training dozens of successful managers, I continue to be aggressively curious about beings and things.

Today, as a founding partner in Friends of Ambition, a growth advisory company three friends of mine and I started recently specifically with the aim of assisting and guiding ambitious businesses in India’s mid-sized towns [we call them Middle India] in chasing their dreams, I am curious about 1st and 2nd generation business owners in that geography. As I often find myself in cities and towns I might have only heard of just a few months ago, meet business owners there and hear their stories, dreams and challenges, I feel a sense of elation and sadness, sometimes simultaneously.

This blog is a chronicle of my experiences in Middle India - mostly gleaned from real life encounters with business owners, their influencers and well wishers.

Scaling a business is something I have been fortunate to learn firsthand, as I helped build and ran several businesses for Starcom MediaVest Group, a part of Paris based Publicis Groupe, as its CEO- South East and South Asia.
 
 
 
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October 08, 2013 03:27 am by Manish
really a good article to read and more than that i like the comments and views. People have one more motto behind having their own start up to make themselves rich. they think if they spend same amount of time and dedication, which they are spending with their company, they would be some where. seco...
July 10, 2013 10:20 am by sharath ram
Hello sir, I am happy to see the article, which encouraged me. I am currently in my final year of mechanical engineering. I wish to pursue higher studies after my bachelor degree. I want to be an entrepreneur ( not sure about the field, though) in India. Will a doctorate or fellowship degree help m...
June 19, 2013 01:12 am by Deepak N H
I am an entrepreneur myself. My simple reason to turn towards entrepreneurship was that I felt happy being one, innovating, solving problems on ground. sir I am 2nd year MBA student and loved ur case study. Considering the present scenario of the great slowdown in the market and number of opportunit...
June 04, 2013 23:03 pm by Kirandeep
Wow, according to you people who graduate from top universities should struggle to find job. In USA, why do new members go through extreme embarrassment to join fraternity? One explanation is that the person who go through great deal of trouble or pain to attain something value it more highly than t...
June 04, 2013 21:21 pm by Kushagra Oberoi
Sir, I am a 3rd yr Mechanical engineering student and loved your case study. Considering the present scenario of the great slowdown in the market and number of opportunities for freshers being hired up and the level of quality education being imparted to present day engineers in our country, entrep...